Adverbial Infinitive in English and its Counterpart in Arabic with Reference to Translation
Inaad Mutlib Sayer
ORCID: 0000-0002-4766-1653
E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.; This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
CV: Dr. Inaad M Sayer is currently a lecturer at the Department of English - University of Human Development – Kurdistan Region – Iraq.
This paper tackles adverbial infinitive in English and its counterpart in Arabic with reference to translation. The aim of the paper is to highlight the points of similarity and diffirence between English and Arabic as far as adverbial infinitive is concerned. The paper also aims at giving suggestions for translating English adverbial infinitive into Arabic and vice versa. The procedure followed in the present paper is to directly compare between the uses of the English infinitive as adverbial and their Arabic equivalent uses to find out in what aspects they are similar and in what aspects they are different. Syntactically, the results show that infinitive in both English and Arabic can be used as adjunct; however, only in English the infinitive can be disjunct or conjunct. Semantically, the infinitive in both languages can express purpose, result, time, reason, condition, exception, and preference. However, there are differences in the details of the uses of the infinitive in each language. Yet, only English has infinitive as comparison, and only Arabic has infinitive as similarity. The study has provided suggestions for translating English adverbial infinitive into Arabic and for translating the Arabic counterpart of English adverbial infinitive into English.
[1] The Holy Quran
[2] A. Hassan, ’al-Naḥw al-Wãfĩ, 3rd ed, vol. 1. Cairo: Dãr ’al-Ma‘ãrif Press, 1966.
[3] A. J. Arberry, The Koran Interpreted. New York: Touchstone, 1996.
[4] ’Abu Bišr ‘Amrũ Sĩbawayh, ’al-Kitãb, Beirut: ‘A᷉lam ’al-Kutub Publisher, 1975.
[5] ’Abu Ja‘far ’an-Naḥḥãs, ’I‘rãb ’al-Qur’ãn, 1st ed., vol. 2. Beirut: Dãr ’al-Kutub ’al-‘Ilmiyyah, 1421 H.
[6] A. Y. Ali, The Holy Quran: Translation and Commentary, 2nd ed. American Trust Publications, 1977.
[7] C. E. Eckersley and J. M. Eckersley, A Comprehensive English Grammar for Foreign Students. London: Longman Group Ltd, 1960.
[8] C. T. Onions, (ed.)  The Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1966.
[9] G. Curme, English Grammar. New York: Barnes & Noble, Inc, 1953.
[10] I. ’al-’Aṣbahãnĩ, ’I‘rãb ’al-Qur’ãn Lil’aṣbahãnĩ, 1st ed. 1995.
[11] I. M. Sayer, “Nominal Infinitive in English and Arabic: A Contrastive Study”, International Journal of English and Education, vol. 5, issue. 3, pp. 372-388, July 2016.
[12] K. Schibsbye, A modern English grammar. London: Oxford University Press, 1967.
[13] M. ‘Abdul Rahĩm Ṣãfi, ’al-Jadwal fĩ ’I‘rãb ’al-Qur’ãn, 4th ed., vol. 1 Damascus: Dãr ’al-Rašĩd, 1418 H.
[14] M. ’al-Ġalãyĩnĩ, Jãma‘ ’al-Durũs ’al-‘Arabiyyah, 30th ed., vol. 3. Beirut: ’al-Maktabah ’al-‘Aṣriyyah Publications, 1994.
[15] M. M. Ali, The Holy Qur’an: Arabic Text with English Translation and Commentary, New ed. Ohio: Ahmadiyya Anjuman Isha‘at Islam Lahore Inc., 2002.
[16] O. Jespersen, Essentials of English Grammar. London: George Allen & Unwin Ltd, 1977.
[17] R. Quirk, S. Greenbaum, J. Leech and J. Svartvik, A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language. London: Longman Group Ltd, 1985.